Michael Tyurin, M.D., Ph.D. has  summarized his approach to REVERSE global warming and save planet's fresh
water, which is evaporating to outer space vacuum in about 50 – 60 coming years at rising Earth surface
temperature
                                                                                         
SUMMARY: This summary puts all the pieces you have probably seen at other pages of www.syngasbiofuelsenergy.com all together aimed at making a big picture of
how Dr. Tyurin trusts his proposed approach will work. Also, Dr. Tyurin would like to spread his knowledge and experience on reducing inorganic carbon of air CO
2 back
to organic carbon of carbohydrates with no use of
Calvin cycle.  Specifically, Dr. Tyurin’s approach will benefit the environment and help expand Humankind in the
Universe. The time is right for that. Thirty two years in industry is not a long time even for a personal experience. However, Dr. Tyurin’s evolution of environmental
perception underwent absolutely astonishing transformation from his high school years. This transformation led him to a better understanding of what is happening now
and will happen with Earth in a short run yet comprising the rest of his life and beyond that.  Additional knowledge will become public domain on the energy side of
metabolic engineering to cure deficiencies which top notch metabolic engineers still do experience with robotics and software enabled microbial engineering, which still
does not work well in industry biocatalysis whatsoever.

HISTORY:  Professor Michael Tyurin, M.D., Ph.D. is not a historian, but his father Professor Vladimir Tyurin, Dr. of Sci. is a Professor of History, thus the hereafter
explains the inherited historical approach to the Universe. Our planet’s history comprises about fifteen billion years. Only about last three billion years are associated
with the accumulated organic carbon. All time before that, there was the progressively increasing reduction of inorganic carbon of CO and CO
2 to organic carbon of
acetyl and methyl produced by acetogens generating the respective cell mass. Acetogens use Acetyl-CoA pathway to reduce inorganic carbon to organic carbon of
Acetyl-CoA and methyl radical directly and selectively. Acetogens are widely distributed in the Universe. They are easily transferrable between Galactics by any sort of
projectiles, flying objects, meteors, comets, etc. Acetogens imbedded into space dust and ice travel in the form of spores and vegetative forms preserved by space
vacuum and cold. Acetogens have accumulated enough organic matter on Earth to support propagation of germinating spores of algae, life forms capable of thriving in
the presence of Sun light and also introduced to our planet from the outer space.  C
alvin cycle powering algae has two phases, the dark phase when organic matter is
consumed by algae with the CO
2 production, and the light phase when CO2 is consumed back with O2 by-production and carbohydrate accumulation in algae.  
Therefore, acetogens helped algae to take over the planet environment until the toxic levels of accumulated by algae O
2 suppressed active acetogen propagation
everywhere they have accumulated organic matter over billions of years of strictly anaerobic conditions doing active inorganic carbon reduction directly and selectively
to organic carbon of carbohydrates to enable algae taking over acetogens. These days, acetogens still do a tremendous job in reducing billions of tons of dissolved in
fresh water/ sea water CO
2 directly to acetate, especially in the coastal areas where fresh water meets with oceanic salt water.

ENERGY PRESERVATION IN ACETOGENS: Acetogens derive energy from sodium pumps rolled by sodium gradient outside and inside cells. The Na+ ions passively
enter cells until their concentration across cell membrane equilibrates. Sodium gradient rolls acetogen sodium pumps. This is just like a power turbine run by water
falling on plates of the wheel by gravity until gravity/falling water exists. The energy produced by pumps is preserved in the form of ATP. The ATP generation powered
by Na+ gradient uses CO and H
2 with CO2 as the electron acceptor (see water – gas shift reaction). The process is powered by Gibb's free energy - 95 kJ /mol reducing
2 moles of CO
2 to 1 mole of Acetyl-CoA. Wild acetogen strains inhabit coastal areas and selectively reduce air/ water CO2 to acetate with recovery of up to 97 % carbon
of air/ water CO
2 as acetate consumed in part by methanogens. Published calculations indicate that acetogens are responsible for the utmost amount of reduced air CO2
exceeding that reduced by plants and algae of the planet all together. The process is different from indirect and non-selective CO
2 biocatalysis by photosynthetic
organisms powered by light energy. Carbon flux in photosynthetic organisms has a split of CO
2 carbon to a number of cell and process needs with only 40 - 66 % of
carbon recovered as enzymatically digestible carbohydrate carbon. Photosynthetic light energy conversion is a phenomenon restricted by well lit surface area.
Photosynthesis is powered by photons. Photons act only on cell surface via excitation of special light antennas inside plant cells exposed to light. Photosynthetic cells
also have to be on well lit surface to have that happen. Plant cells may convert only ~5 % of light energy into ATP due to low energy conversion capability determined by
complex plant cell morphology, long cell duplication time (>21 h) and complex plant organism development cycle (compare to 70 % light energy recovery efficiency of
modern solar panels).  Carbohydrate carbon produced during light phase is used to make CO
2 back during dark phase of photosynthetic cycle. Thus photosynthesis is
exemplary time extended process of air CO
2 reduction no longer balancing air/ water CO2 spike-like raise after the year 1900.  Remember, that took over 5 billion years
to accumulate petroleum reserves on Earth from algal and other biological residues to have that petroleum burned in just 200 recent years.

MORPHOLOGY: Acetogens have the highest ratio of cell surface area-to-cell volume with cell duplication time around 60-65 min when grown in continuous CO2/H2 gas
blend fermentation. Acetogens thus interact with gases with entire cell surface rendering extremely efficient and selective way gases enter cells to be consumed for
reduction of inorganic carbon to carbohydrates. Acetogens do not have carbon reduction path splits like photosynthetic organisms do. Therefore, simple carbon
balance equations will predict accurate product yield when biocatalyst was properly engineered and powered for near theoretical performance. Dr. Tyurin has worked for
over 30 years on fermentation of carbon sources non-miscible with water phase. Amazing, that scientists and chemical engineers still debate about the so-called water-
gas mass transfer barrier to question facts known to us from childhood. Indeed, humans and animals breathe with constant exchange of blood CO
2 to oxygen at lung
surface with no need for substantial water solubility of both gases. Specifically, water solubility of acetogens feed gas blends used for inorganic carbon reduction to
carbohydrates is as follows: H
2 - 1 mg/l, CO - 10 mg/l, and CO2  - 1.45 g/l.  Despite such low water gas solubility, even bench-scale acetogen fermentation renders over 2
g/l dry cell weight (DCW) to exceed 20 g/l DCW under certain gas blend fermentation conditions. Therefore, Dr. Tyurin has discovered that the most crucial factor for
gas blend fermentation is the concentration of viable cells-biocatalysts in fermentation broth, as supported by known high gas solubility in lipids and phospholipids.
Acetogen cells take gases directly via cell lipid structures transported inside cells via passive diffusion from nano-size gas bubbles created by special spargers in
bioreactors.  Acetogens synthesize said lipid gas uptake structures for consumption of inorganic carbon in CO/CO
2 and also uptake H2  present in gas blend. Thus, there
is no water-gas mass transfer barrier if proper growth conditions/ vessels are used along with the use of pure culture(s). Dr. Tyurin has proprietary methods to grow
acetogens on solid media surface to conduct quality cloning by mechanical separation to ensure the biocatalyst culture is pure.

GENE DELIVERY: Another reason for Dr. Tyurin to be amazed with acetogens was extremely high electric capacitance of alive acetogen cells caused by massive
internal packs of lipid structures ensuring intracellular gas intake. Dr. Tyurin measured electric capacitance of a standard 100 microliter cell sample (`billion of cells)
prepared for electrotransformation from fresh continuous acetogen culture under anaerobic conditions. The capacitance was over 8 microfarads (compare with the
same for
E. coli cell sample of only 25 picofarads for ~ billion of cells which is six orders of magnitude lower). Massive intracellular membrane structures are involved into
inorganic carbon transport and reduction. Said structures render high cell sample electric capacitance not allowing the use of ubiquitous electroporation equipment for
successful gene delivery. Since Dr. Tyurin is also a talented and accomplished electronics engineer he has designed and built his own custom electrotransformation
generator (www.syngasbiofuelsenergy.com) where cell samples are in series with electronic key power modulating generator tetrode tube powered by special power
capacitor (relevant available on market for years exponential and square pulse electroporation generators have samples in parallel with electronic key (thyristors or
IGBTs with high internal capacitance). Therefore, any sort of exponential or square pulse  electropration generators described in scientific literature with no Dr. Tyurin’s
co-authorship cannot electrotransform cell samples with high internal capacitance.  The pulse shape and pulse fronts become severely distorted by said high cell
sample capacitance thus making gene transfer efforts futile.

METABOLIC ENGINEERING: The noted by Dr. Tyurin deficiency in methodology and biotechnology projects design was cured when Dr. Tyurin for the first time has
used his proprietary electrotrasformation generator to deliver recombinant DNA into acetogen cells (
http://www.syngasbiofuelsenergy.com/servicesET.html). The crucial
feature of said generator is that the samples of target cells are connected with the power current circuit in series vs. in parallel as in the rest of the electrotransformation
generators the worldwide scientific community uses for attempted but not successful gene delivery into target cells with complex morphology and therefore high internal
electric capacitance. In the case of acetogens, Dr. Tyurin has documented that the actively grown on gas blends acetogen cells do have tremendous inner cell electric
capacitance.   For instance, a 0.1 ml cell sample with about 10 in power 9 cells has ~ 8 microF electric capacitance.  For comparison, the same cell sample with E. coli
cells has only 50 pF capacitance.  Simple calculation shows over a million times difference between the two numbers thus explaining why parallel connection of samples
to the output of the electorporation generator does not allow the applied pulse to electroporate target cells when cells are connected in parallel to the pulse generator
used by all the competitors to Dr. Tyurin’s businesses due to significant electrotransformation pulse shape distortion (electric pulse integration event).
Acetogens do have abundant multi-layer lipid structures consuming gas blend via simple diffusion process. Acetogens do have inducible genome expression regulation
to produce multi-layer lipid structures they use for direct and selective gas consumption when they use gas as the feedstock. In contrary, if glucose is available as
carbon source for carbon oxidation to acetyl-CoA acetogens do not reduce gas carbon and that activates Glycolysis actogens have acquired from algae over the 12
billion years co-existence path. Said multi-layer lipid structures electrically and mechanically impede gene delivery into target cells if not Syngas Biofuels Energy, Inc.
electrotransformation generators are used for gene transfer. Therefore, any business formed by Dr. Tyurin which deals with gas blend continuous fermentation
including but not limited to businesses oriented at syngas fermentation, does not have any technology competition for said reasons at any point of the world. Here are
some additional specifics.
 Engineering of commercial grade biocatalysts always faces general design and methodology problems. After spending over 25 years in leading metabolic engineering
teams, Dr. Tyurin has worked on metabolic engineering using a variety of gene delivery/ expression tools: plasmid expression vectors, chromosomal integration
vectors/approaches (suicidal vectors), anti-sense RNA technology, etc. With finally successful engineering of his commercial grade biocatalysts, Dr. Tyurin has come to
a discovery which however was always at the surface of things just by common sense, and therefore had to be obvious to anyone working in the field of industrial
biocatalyst strain development/ improvement but still was left unnoticed prior to Dr. Tyurin. For instance, imagine a nice powerful and expensive car on a highway driven
at 75 mph showing manufacturer’s specified gas mileage. Now, with a custom rare hook, let’s attach another but disabled car behind the first one and ask the driver to
reach the same driving performance as the first car was driven alone. The same happens with the engineered biocatalyst cells. Engineering tools powered by in silico
genome modification render each and every biocatalysis opportunity happening only on the computer screen. Engineered biocatalyst performance with the introduced
amplified artificial constructs always is not as anticipated. In fact, engineered in silico biocatalysts do not perform well until said constructs evolve but now with no
anticipated biocatalyst performance whatsoever. Specifically, the ground breaking discovery which Dr. Tyurin has made, explains how to power artificial genomes to
reach near theoretical engineered biocatalyst performance. This is amazing - microbial cells have their own energy pools along with cell energy pool management
approaches and tools just like good housekeeping helps get the most out of a fixed budget. Specifically, genes require energy for maintenance which relies upon the
total cell energy pool. Each gene maintenance requires fraction of the cell energy pool during cell duplication (variety of multiple microbial cell division types would make
certain difference: triplication or quadriplication, etc) and for gene expression and regulation, not to forget the architect part of the cell development along with the
orchestration of expression in cells with complex cell development cycle and very complex morphology like in acetogens. Finally, if by the means of research the wild
type cell is overloaded with the amplified extra genes/ operons beyond its original genome powering point, even with the optimal DNA codon selection in synthetic
constructs, and under the right promoters with proper terminators, that will not lead to commercially sound performance of engineered biocatalyst anyhow. In the past,
Dr. Tyurin saw that multiple times at companies/ universities using his electroporation/ electrotransformation/ electrofusion equipment and protocols in their fuel butanol,
“cellulosic” ethanol, ethanol, methanol, or PHA/ biodegradable polymers overproduction and even commercial projects with synthetic constructs designed by the top
notch experts. Engineered biocatalysts always behaved sick and did not want to render any sort of commercially sound performance/ robustness until introduced
constructs underwent naturally occurring structural modifications over substantial cell generation paths under selective conditions. At that point, the robustness was
partially or completely restored with added functionality compromised to the extent making genome engineering efforts futile but still costly and time consuming. With
zero industrial importance and technology outcome, this drain of tax payer funds still serves as a gold mine/ source for numerous grant applications feeding the
overwhelming overhead expenses in economical structure of universities also rendering enormous benefits for supporting personnel.  There are scientists-champions in
the total amount of obtained grant support for decades, each annually draining from NSF, NIFA and DOE over a few $millions. However none of them do have no
commercial technology specifically surviving economically the end of a particular grant series for dozens of years.  
 This is how it works in our Universe in a whole and in any genome regulation specifically. Naturally occurring structural modifications over cell generations under
selective conditions are also known as the genome plasticity. Genome plasticity always rules in nature.  In other words there is always a constant ratio of the total
amount of nucleotides and the total single cell volume to be maintained.  The nucleotide composition may vary substantially often leading to the dead end in a particular
strain / cell line under given growth conditions. Dr. Tyurin recalls
Bifidobacterium bifidum 1 strain in probiotic ”Bifidumbacterin”. That strain lost a substantial genome
fraction encoding capability to synthesize amino-acids and nucleotides since the strain was maintained on a custom liver hydrolysate medium for over 40 years. From
the past with industrial antibiotics production, Dr. Tyurin recalls genome consequences of industrial streptomyces overproducing erythromycin or tylosin. They all had
the missing Glycolysis path substituted in their genome with naturally selected amplified sequences encoding erythromycin or tylosin biosynthesis. What you can gather
from this is that the ratio between the cell surface/ volume and the total amount of stably maintained nucleotides always stays constant. This is due to the cell energy
pool management for its maintenance under the biological system energy entropy always heading to its minimum. The genome content may vary substantially
depending on the conditions the strain is constantly exposed to. That leads to always irreversible strain evolution or diversion from the wild type genome which literally is
the spontaneous deletion of unnecessary nucleotides or even operons not used and therefore replaced with something been always in constant need for expression
and which therefore gets amplified while keeping the constant cell volume / nucleotide content ratio. This is the discovery which Dr. Tyurin has made but still has no time
to submit it for the Nobel prize in Biology nomination as of yet.
 Dr. Tyurin was encouraged by the data that elimination of cryptic small multi-copy plasmid from acetogen resulted in statistically significant shortening of the cell
duplication time. That made the strain vigorous and robust compared to the wild type under the same growth conditions. Based on that, Dr. Tyurin initiated his genome
reduction experiments keeping in mind the attractive behavior of minimal
E. coli genome obtained by Scarab Genomics in MN (http://www.scarabgenomics.com/).
Another experience from Dr. Tyurin’s past, discovery of the cascade structure of some Gram+ genomes was the same in lieu of the rational engineering approach aimed
at proper powering and maintaining of introduced amplified synthetic constructs. Such powering always happen at expense of the cell energy pool fraction “released” by
deletion of the original genome sections to collect some cell energy. Some acetogen genomes are sequenced and partially annotated. However, sequencing and
annotation do not render the information on how many copies of particular genes/ gene clusters/ operons are present in cells at the given moments. This is very
important from the energetic point. It determines how robust the strain biocatalytic performance is at a given moment. Dr. Tyurin was surprised when found that certain
gene clusters, like Glycolysis, were eventually acquired by acetogens at some evolution point, were maintained at up to ten -  fifteen copies of each its gene even when
cells were grown on gas blend (unpublished data). Some sporulation/ spore germination gene clusters were also in multiple copies. Having that in mind, Dr. Tyurin
succeeded deleting some of said gene clusters aimed at cell energy re-distribution for reliable powering of synthetic 23BD operon. And not surprisingly now, deletion of
said clusters led to shortening of the cell duplication time indicating increased robustness. However said robustness did not last long. After about 3,000-4,200 cell
duplication cycles, genome clusters left intact became amplified to replace missing nucleotides with cell duplication time returning back to the original duplication time of
the original non-modified strain under the same growth conditions. However, if cells with the reduced genome immediately acquire comparable amount of nucleotides
which was eliminated via removal (proprietary design tool),  then the resulting recombinants were stable and approached near theoretical biocatalysis performance and
robustness overproducing specific product of interest in continuous gas blend fermentation

COMMERCIAL GRADE BIOCATALYSTS: After spending over 25 years leading metabolic engineering teams, Dr. Tyurin has worked on metabolic engineering using a
variety of gene delivery/ expression tools: plasmid expression vectors, chromosomal integration vectors/approaches (suicidal vectors), anti-sense RNA technology, etc.
With finally successful engineering of his commercial grade biocatalysts, Dr. Tyurin  has come to a conclusion which however was on the surface and thus was obvious
to anyone working in the field of industrial biocatalyst strain development/ improvement but still was left unnoticed prior to Dr. Tyurin.  Imagine a nice car on a highway
driven at 70 mph and showing specific manufacturer promised gas mileage. Now, with a custom rare hook, let’s attach another but disabled car behind the first one and
ask the driver to reach the same driving performance as the first car was driven alone. The same happens with engineered biocatalyst cells. Powerful in silico genome
modification/engineering tools render each and every opportunity happening only on computer screen. Engineered biocatalyst performance with introduced amplified
artificial constructs is not as anticipated. Engineered biocatalysts do not perform well until said constructs evolve but now with no anticipated biocatalyst performance
whatsoever.  Specifically, the ground breaking discovery which Dr. Tyurin made, explains how to power artificial genomes to reach near theoretical engineered
biocatalyst performance. That is amazing - microbial cells have their own energy pools along with cell energy pool management approaches and tools just like good
housekeeping helps get most out of a fixed budget. Genes require maintenance which relies on cell energy pool. Each gene maintenance requires fraction of cell
energy pool during cell duplication (variety of multiple microbial cell division types would make certain difference: triplication or quadriplication, etc) and for gene
expression, not to forget the orchestration of expression in cells with complex cell development cycle. If cell is overloaded with amplified extra genes beyond its original
genome, even with proper DNA codon selection in introduced synthetic constructs under the right promoters with proper terminators, that will not lead to commercially
sound performance of engineered biocatalyst. In the past, Dr. Tyurin saw that multiple times at companies/universities using his electroporation/ electrotransformation/
electrofusion equipment and protocols in their fuel butanol, cellulosic ethanol or PHA/biodegradable polymers overproduction projects with synthetic constructs designed
by top notch experts. Engineered biocatalysts always behaved sick and did not want to render any sort of commercially sound performance/robustness until introduced
constructs underwent modifications over cell generations under selective conditions. At that point robustness was generally restored with added functionality
compromised making engineering efforts futile but still costly and time consuming.

GENOME PLASTICITY: Genome plasticity always rules in nature.  Dr. Tyurin recalls Bifidobacterium bifidum 1 strain in probiotic ”Bifidumbacterin” which completely lost
substantial genome fraction encoding capability to synthesize 16 amino-acids since the strain was maintained and grown on liver hydrolysate medium for over 40 years.
From Dr. Tyurin’s past with industrial antibiotics production, he recalls consequences of industrial producer strain selection/ maintenance performed in the same way for
30 years in industrial labs with selection of only large colonies. Such streptomyces strains overproduced erythromycin or tylosin and had missing sections of Glycolysis
path in their genome substituted with amplified sequences encoding erythromycin or tylosin biosynthesis. What you can gather from this is that the ratio between cell
surface/ volume and total amount of stably maintained nucleotides stays constant due to understandable from energy pool management point.  However the genome
content may vary substantially depending on the conditions the strain is constantly exposed to (always irreversible strain evolution or diversion from the wild type).
Encouraged by data that elimination of cryptic small multi-copy plasmid from acetogen resulted in statistically significant shortening of cell duplication time (more
vigorous/ robust strain compared to wild type under the same growth conditions), Dr. Tyurin initiated his genome reduction experiments keeping in mind the attractive
behavior of minimal E. coli genome obtained by Scarab Genomics in MN. Another experience from his past, namely, discovery of cascade structure of some Gram+
genomes (
Ph.D. Thesis: Antibiotic Resistance and Antagonistic Activity of Lactobacilli) was the same in lieu of rational engineering approach aimed at proper powering
and maintenance of introduced amplified synthetic constructs. Such powering always happen at expense of cell energy pool fraction “released” by deletion of original
genome sections. Some acetogen genomes are sequenced and partially annotated. However, sequencing and annotation do not render the information on how many
copies of particular genes/ gene clusters/ operons are present in cells at a given moment. This is very important from energetic point: it determines how robust the strain
biocatalytic performance is at a given moment. Dr. Tyurin was surprised when found that certain gene clusters, like Glycolysis, eventually acquired by acetogens at
some evolution point, were maintained at up to ten -  fifteen copies of each its gene even when cells were grown on gas blend. Some sporulation/ spore germination
gene clusters were also in multiple copies. Having that in mind, Dr. Tyurin succeeded in deletion of some of said gene clusters [
DOI: 10.1007/s12010-013-0285-0].
Surprisingly, deletion of said clusters led to shortening of cell duplication time indicating increased robustness. However said robustness did not last long. After about
3,000-4,200 cell duplication cycles, genome clusters left intact became amplified to replace missing nucleotides with cell duplication time returning to original duplication
time of the strain with intact genome. If immediately add comparable amount of nucleotides in the form of amplified artificial operons encoding particular biocatalytic
pathway(s) just after the original genome reduction, then resulting recombinants were stable and approached near theoretical biocatalysis performance/ robustness
overproducing specific product of interest in continuous fermentations [
DOI 10.1007/s10295-014-1416-5].

RECENT PROGRESS:  Dr. Tyurin’s recent progress allowed direct and selective gas blend nitrogen reduction also known as nitrogen fixation (jargon).  Now, there are
two of our tremendous achievements in our corporate hands:
 1) Dr. Tyurin’s genome tailoring he discovered and successfully used to engineer his first and the first in the world acetogen biocatalyst capable of producing
commercially sound concentrations of isobutanol fuel directly and selectively from either CO or CO
2, and
 2) just developed biocatalyst additionally capable of N2 reduction in continuous gas blend fermentation.  Economical air blown driven coal gasification renders
unmatched N
2 in syngas and thus renders outstanding potential to further cut down the established manufacturing cost for fuel isobutanol, diacetone alcohol and
commodity chemicals in the pipeline which Dr. Tyurin has established and expands (www.syngasbiofuelsenergy.com).
Both the achievements allow significant reduction of fuel isobutanol manufacturing cost making fuels manufacturing overwhelmingly attractive for investors who may
anticipate tripling of gross profit margin if pioneering technologies developed by Dr. Tyurin replace manufacture of gasoline from petroleum. Recent Syngas Biofuels
Energy,Inc. progress in air gas blend separation technologies (Dr. Tyurin, unpublished) allows affordable gas blend manufacturing in house costs: CO
2 - $6.00 per ton
compressed, H
2 - $0.23 kilo, and N2 - $1.24 per ton compressed. With the newly developed acetogen biocatalyst capable of nitrogen reduction to decrease the cost of
nutrient medium used for continuous syngas fermentation, it is economically feasible to use syngas produced by air-blown gasification since biocatalysts uses nitrogen
in said syngas not used by the process of chemical synthesis]. Dr. Tyurin does have six technologies for commercialization directly and selectively from syngas using
biocatalysis: methanol, ethanol, butanol, isobutanol, 23ButaneDiol, and mevalonic acid, for the total existing market in excess of $3trillion.  

MANUFACTURING PROCESS: Continuous fermentations render over 75 % capital equipment time to manufacturing process compared to only 35 % capital equipment
use time for batch fermentations thus affecting the footprint and operation expenses of respective plants. Therefore, Dr. Tyurin has invented, designed and built his
20,000 gallons horizontal fermentation modules for continuous gas blend fermentation with scalability achievable via multiplying number of said modules depending on
the annual plant production rate planned.

REVERSAL OF GLOBAL WARMING: Lastly, Dr. Tyurin trusts there are several interesting conclusions on managing/ reversal of global warming. Global warming started
because of exponentially increasing concentration of air CO
2.  Amazing that contemporary petroleum reserves were accumulated for over 5 billion years when algae
accumulated enough oxygen to become dominant at expense of organic matter synthetized and accumulated by acetogens prior to that. The world was nearly  living
diversified microbial population then with acetogens ruling. Organic synthesis in acetogens reducing inorganic carbon of gases to organic carbon of cell carbohydrates
and acetate for approximately 10 billion years accumulated enough food for germination and propagation of algae spores broth from space.  Produced oxygen
accumulated to levels inhibiting acetogens and that was how oxygen-dependent life on Earth was established. Now, that long time accumulated petroleum is getting
nearly exhausted by Humankind for just ~200 years. If the intensity of fossil fuel use was comparable with pace of its natural accumulation, then no air/water CO
2
exponential increase would happen = no global warming would happen. In addition to that, tremendous impact of vaccines and antibiotics cut down mortality rates taking
Humankind to exponential growth phase with population doubling time every 35 years. That means Earth population will reach about 14 billion people by 2050.
Everything is fine even there is no food shortage as of yet but population oxidizes carbohydrates and exhales CO
2. Subsequently, spike-like exponential increase of air
CO
2 turned planet surface into a boiling pot with evaporation of extra vaporized water to outer space vacuum. Space vacuum absorbs and transfers evaporated water to
other galaxies leaving Humankind to face global drought by sometime around 2060 +/- 10 years. That means one morning people will wake up to no fresh water around
since fresh water comprises only less than 3 % of total Earth water reserves. What to do in order to slow down/ prevent that from happening?

COMMERCIALIZATION: Dr. Tyurin started his business Syngas Biofuels Energy, Inc. on May 16, 2007 with strong intent to use synthesis gas as the process
feedstock. Countries like China produce increasing amounts of syngas for a number of applications using ICCG coal gasification technology. When 2010 NASA note was
passed about finding ice on the Moon cold side, Dr. Tyurin put all the pieces together and thought that the most promising and rewarding to the rest of his life would be
commercialization of manufacturing approach reducing inorganic carbon of air CO
2 to organic carbon of particular fuels and commodity chemicals of current interest,
manufactured at disruptive manufacturing costs using air CO
2 biocatalysis. Indeed, the final product will be carbohydrates for oxidation with CO2 production back to air.
The catch is that air CO
2 used as manufacture feedstock will be converted into organic carbon of product which can be managed in environmentally suitable way, not for
immediate uncontrolled oxidizing. This is the matter of decreasing air CO
2 levels to levels before people started to burn petroleum and fuels made from it, under proper
and rational management of produced carbohydrates. Dr. Tyurin’s approach has tremendous multi-application importance. Used biocatalyst cell mass is rich in fatty
acids, proteins and anti-oxidants more potent than Q10 if processed in our proprietary way. Used biocatalyst would be in pure culture since water treatment includes
gamma sterilization to make Dr. Tyurin’s commercial process of near USP quality. Tons of wet crude properly processed manufacturing waste will be produced daily by
each 30MGPY isobutanol plant thus rendering constant food supply for livestock already starving from progressing drought. Contemporary efforts to make extraction of
CO
2 and N2  directly and selectively from air in house to make proprietary commercial process more economical will enable multiple additional applications including
those for remote space travel. Production of H
2 from oil production/ waste water using solar panel powered electrolysis is totally viable at Houston latitude and in all sub-
equatiral/ equatorial areas of the Globe. Dr. Tyurin will use standard approach of DC power management already developed for confined facilities with DC motors and
other appliances with no need to convert the DC to AC /return to the grid as the major cause of solar energy losses. The hydrogen manufacturing cost in house will be
only $0.23 per kilo of H
2. At last, new CO2  accumulation industrial approach will accommodate hundreds of thousands/ millions of energy industry employees world-wide
if commercialized at the full scale for $600-675 billion fraction of existing $1 trillion gasoline market - those highly skilled workers who would be laid off when petroleum
reserves depletion will cause shrinking of existing production/ refinery operations.
ExxonMobil projections were made that diesel fuel market will surpass gasoline market
by 2020.  Proprietary Dr. Tyurin’s technology to manufacture acetone directly and selectively from CO
2 will enable diacetone alcohol production made by condensation
of two acetone molecules.  Diacetone alcohol is a perfect diesel fuel extender or even replacement in modern diesel engines - acetone from air CO
2 will shorten our way
to reverse global warming then. The most economical calculations predicted that 30 MGPY plant manufacturing fuel isobutanol or acetone/ diacetone, made directly and
selectively from air carbon dioxide, will be the most suitable for cloning everywhere in the world.  Houston latitude provides great in house manufacturing costs for
hydrogen production using solar panels.  Tropical/ subtropical belt will be the area with the least expensive hydrogen manufacturing when proprietary Dr. Tyurin’s
technology will be used.  Each 30 MGPY manufacturing facility employs 7 full-time personnel along with creation of up to 21 contract / service / maintenance positions.  
Environmentally friendly green carbon negative manufacture may be located even in populated areas, easing tough work-life balance.

 With that said, Dr. Tyurin would like to emphasize that your sincere support will speed up his operations devoted to inevitable commercialization of his disruptive
technologies using air CO
2 as feedstock and source of carbon to reverse global warming and to benefit Humankind via expanding its presence in the Universe with
carbohydrates and food in particular produced using proprietary Dr. Tyurin’s technology consuming air CO
2.
http://www.syngasbiofuelsenergy.com/
Syngas Biofuels Energy, Inc.

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