Syngas Biofuels Energy, Inc.
                                                                                                        The Problem
Energy production from fossil fuels, manufacture of food and chemicals using biocatalysis of carbohydrates as well as breathing of organisms are associated with
oxidation of carbohydrate carbon to CO
2 with oxygen as the end electron acceptor.

Petroleum can be dated: the age of reservoir hydrocarbons ranges from
over a million years to more than 600 million years back (references of 5 billion years
time frame exist).  Most crude oil produced today is between 10 and 270 million years old. Petroleum accumulated over millions of years was almost depleted in just
about 200 years. Burning of fossil fuels for energy generation had caused atmospheric CO
2 spikes which significantly added to exponentially increasing air CO2
content. Exponentially growing Earth population produces excreted via breathing CO
2 as the final product of energy generation from oxidation of carbohydrates.
Progressing global warming is supported by doubling of the Earth population every 35 years after commercialization of antibiotics and modern vaccines from 7 billion
in 2011 to 14 billion in 2050 (
http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/1998/7/98.07.02.x.html).

In the air gas blend, CO
2 is the heaviest gas with density 1.977 g per cubic meter (air density is 1.205 g per cubic meter). With extra CO2 on Earth surface its surface
temperature continues to rise lifting more water vapors which leave Earth's gravity field into surrounding space vacuum. Moon ice discovered by NASA suggests that
Earth actively loses fresh water to the outer space vacuum. The existence of Moon ice means that Earth’s water vapors are trapped on the cold surface while still
further evaporating from ice. Therefore, global warming will bring a substantial fresh water shortage by 2050 ± 10 years thus causing dramatic changes to the world’s
economy. Fresh water reserves comprise <3 % of the total planet water reserves. Fresh water most likely will become currency at that time. If air CO
2 concentration
would not be decreased dramatically in the next ten-fifteen years the planet will face substantial fresh water losses by approximately 2040 with respective deep social
and economic changes making life totally different from that in these days.

                                                                                     The Tool To Reverse Global Warming
Commercial biocatalysis of air CO2 can be used for direct and selective manufacturing of chemicals, fuels and food/ food components for the existing global nearly $3
trillion market.

Commercial use of Acetyl-CoA pathway is a sound alternative to photosynthesis to reduce atmospheric CO
2 [1-15].  Acetogens are known for the highest ratio of cell
surface area-to-cell volume thus rendering the shortest path from extracellular gas nano-bubbles to the intracellular enzymes and back from enzymes to the
extracellular medium for the biocatalysis product [1-16]. Acetogens have cell doubling time ~ 65 minutes under optimal growth conditions on gas blends, compared to
~ 21 h cell doubling time for higher plants and algae which also have complex cell architecture significantly splitting CO
2 carbon flux with only a small fraction of that
recoverable as enzymatically digestible carbohydrates [1-15]. Acetogens do not have “dark” fraction of inorganic carbon reduction cycle like photosynthetic organisms
do (Calvin cycle in plants) thus do not consume already produced from CO
2 carbohydrate cell reserves.

As opposite to algae-based biocatalysis, acetogen-based biocatalysis does not require excessive land and USP-grade water reserves for batch fermentation process
sicne photosyntyhesis is a solely surface phenomenon with no bioreactor volume involved into process with no light inside plastic bags where CO
2  is pumped in and
oxygen out (?) (algae, cyanobacteria). Acetogens offer benefits of selective commercial biotransformation of air CO
2 at almost 97 % rate of CO2 carbon recovery as
carbon of target fuel or commodity chemical [1-15].
In lieu of that, biocatalysis of vent gas of >100 MW IGCC power plants (100 % CO2) to carbohydrates gains
increasing interest [1-15] along with direct and selective fermentation of CO
2 extracted from air using the same approach of biocatalyst design [7-15]. There is an
indication that CO
2 extracted from air is available at $15.00 /ton liquid (http://www.netl.doe.gov/publications/proceedings/01/carbon_seq/7b1.pdf) thus creating the
route to reverse global warming via direct and selective air CO
2 biocatalysis. We are close to prprietary technology testing to bring the in house air CO2 cost down to
about $2.00/ ton. Another important component to make carbohydrates via direct CO
2 reduction to carbohydrate carbon, H2, was suggested for economically sound
production via oil production water electrolysis powered by modern solar panels covering 20,000 gallon bioreactor roofs, where solar panels recover ~1 kW per
square meter (
http://www.kyocerasolar.com/assets/001/5154.pdf) rendering 120 - 140 kW per roof with O2 as the process by-product [7-15].

                                                                      References on Global Warming Reversal via CO2 Biocatalysis
1.        Gak E, Tyurin M, Kiriukhin M (2014) Genome tailoring powered production of isobutanol in continuous CO2/ H2 blend fermentation using engineered acetogen
biocatalyst. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 41(5):763-781.
2.        Kiriukhin M, Tyurin M. (2013) Mevalonate production by engineered acetogen biocatalyst during continuous fermentation of syngas or CO
2/ H2 blend.
Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering - DOI: 10.1007/s00449-013-0991-6.
3.        Tyurin M. (2013) (Invited) Reversal of global warming using $3 trillion market force: chemicals and fuels produced directly and selectively in continuous
fermentations of gas blends comprising CO and CO
2. In: Environmental Aspects of Global warming. Nova Science Publications Press. – New Developments in Global
Warming Research. Eds: Carter B. Keyes and Olivia C. Lucero.
https://www.novapublishers.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=46570
4.        Gak E, Tyurin M, Kiriukhin M (2014) UV-induced mutagenesis in acetogens: resistance to methanol, ethanol, acetone, or n-butanol in recombinants with
reduced genomes during continuous CO
2/ H2 gas blend fermentation. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. DOI: 10.1007/s11274-013-1579-7.
5.        Tyurin M, Kiriukhin M (2013). 2,3-Butanediol production by engineered acetogen biocatalyst during continuous fermentation of syngas or CO
2/ H2 blend. Appl
Biochem Biotechnol. 170 (6): 1503-1524. DOI: 10.1007/s12010-013-0285-0.
6.        Tyurin M, Kiriukhin M. (2013). Selective methanol or formate production during continuous CO
2 fermentation by the acetogen biocatalysts engineered via
integration of synthetic pathways using
Tn7-tool. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 29 (9)1611-1623. DOI: 10.1007/s11274-013-1324-2.
7.        Tyurin M. (2013). Gene replacement and elimination using
AlphaRed- and FLP-based tool to re-direct carbon flux in acetogen biocatalyst during continuous
CO
2/ H2 blend fermentation. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology. 40 (7):749-758. DOI: 10.1007/s10295-013-1279-1.
8.        Berzin V, Kiriukhin M, Tyurin M. (2012) Selective production of acetone during continuous synthesis gas fermentation by engineered biocatalyst
Clostridium sp.
MAceT113. Letters of Appl Microbiol. DOI10.1111/j.1472-765X.2012.03272.x.
9.        Tyurin M, Kiriukhin M. (2013). Expression of amplified synthetic ethanol pathway integrated using
Tn7-tool and powered at the expense of eliminated pta, ack,
spo0A and spo0J during continuous syngas or CO2 /H2 blend fermentation. J Appl Microbiol.  114(4):1033-45. doi: 10.1111/jam.12123
10.      Tyurin M, Kiryukhin M, Berzin V. (2012) Electrofusion of untreated cells of the newly isolated acetogen
Clostridium sp. MT351 with integrated in the
chromosome
erm(B) or cat leading to the combined presence of these antibiotic resistance genes in the chromosome of the electrofusion products. Journal of Biotech
Research. 4:1-12.
11.      Berzin V, Kiriukhin M, Tyurin M. (2013)
Cre-lox66/lox71-based elimination of phosphotransacetylase or acetaldehyde dehydrogenase shifted carbon flux in
acetogen rendering selective overproduction of ethanol or acetate. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 195(3):181-8. DOI: 10.1007/s12010-012-9864-8
12.      Berzin V, Kiriukhin M, Tyurin M. (2013) Selective n-butanol production by
Clostridium sp. MTButOH1365 during continuous synthesis gas fermentation due to
expression of synthetic thiolase, 3-hydroxy butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, crotonase, butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, butyraldehyde dehydrogenase and NAD-dependent
butanol dehydrogenase. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 169(3), 950-959. DOI: 10.1007/s12010-012-0060-7
13.      Berzin V, Kiriukhin M, Tyurin M. (2013) “Curing” of plasmid DNA in acetogen using microwave or applying an electric pulse improves cell growth and metabolite
production as compared to the plasmid-harboring strain. Arch. Microbiol. 195(3), 181-188. DOI 10.1007/s00203-012-0862-6
14.      Berzin V, Tyurin M. (2012). Acetogen biocatalyst
Clostridium sp. MTEtOH871 engineered with our proprietary electrotransformation technology and equipment:
continuous synthesis gas fermentation for selective ethanol production. Journal of Biotech Research. 4:54-64.
15.      Berzin V, Kiriukhin M., Tyurin M. (2012) Elimination of acetate production to improve ethanol yield during continuous synthesis gas fermentation by engineered
biocatalyst
Clostridium sp. MTEtOH550. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 167 (2):338-347. DOI 10.1007/s12010-012-9697-5.
16.      Young KD (2006). The selective value of bacterial shape. Microbiol Mol Biol Reviews 70(3):660–703. DOI:  10.1128/MMBR.00001-06.
Reversal of Global Warming
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